There is a lot of talk about precision viticulture, understood as an agronomic practice linked to the quality of the wine and also to the reduction of the environmental impact of vine cultivation. Let's really see what precision viticulture really is, answering 5 questions.
Precision viticulture first appeared in the United States around the 1970s - the term was first used in 1990. It is an agricultural strategy that aims to improve the yield and quality of a vineyard .
1. But what do we really mean when we talk about precision viticulture?
Precision viticulture integrates technology and agronomic practices through the acquisition of large amounts of data. In this way we gain an in-depth knowledge not only of the vineyard but of its individual portions. In essence, information is obtained on the growth rate of the cultivation , an element directly linked to the quantity and quality of the grapes that will be obtained.
2. What tools does precision viticulture use?
Remote sensing with satellite systems , and lately a lot of drones (with multispectral sensors), always linking detection to precise GPS localization.
3. Purpose of precision viticulture?
The final objective of precision viticulture is the management of the vineyard through efficient and targeted interventions , even on the individual plant.
Precision viticulture is therefore linked to the concept of zoning , which means identifying homogeneous areas of the vineyard, whose grapes will lead to the production of wines with precise organoleptic characteristics.
4. When are the surveys carried out?
In precision viticulture, measurements are carried out several times in the life cycle of the plant, from just after budding until the ripening of the bunches.
5. What type of information is obtained from the surveys?
Georeferenced forecast maps are obtained which return the state of health of the individual areas of the vineyard (giving oenochemical parameters). This allows us to identify areas that have different production potential, which should therefore be treated differently.
By estimating the vegetative vigor of the plants, it is possible to identify any problems and differentiate subsequent actions (including fertilization and water administration), improving productivity and reducing waste .
Which, today, is a central theme.